The Remarkable Biography of King Hussein: How to Read Lion of Jordan for Free
Lion of Jordan: The Life of King Hussein in War and Peace free download
If you are interested in learning more about one of the most influential and respected leaders in the Middle East, you should read Lion of Jordan: The Life of King Hussein in War and Peace by Avi Shlaim. This book is a comprehensive and captivating biography of King Hussein, who ruled Jordan for 46 years from 1952 to 1999. In this article, we will tell you what the book is about, why it is important, and how you can download it for free.
Lion of Jordan: The Life of King Hussein in War and Peace free download
Who was King Hussein of Jordan?
King Hussein bin Talal was born on November 14, 1935, in Amman, Jordan. He was the eldest son of King Talal and Queen Zein al-Sharaf. He belonged to the Hashemite dynasty, which traces its ancestry to the Prophet Muhammad. He was also a direct descendant of Sharif Hussein bin Ali, who led the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during World War I.
What is the book about?
Lion of Jordan: The Life of King Hussein in War and Peace is a biography written by Avi Shlaim, a professor of international relations at Oxford University. Shlaim is an Israeli historian who specializes in the Arab-Israeli conflict. He interviewed King Hussein several times before his death and had access to his personal papers and archives. The book covers King Hussein's life from his birth to his death, with a focus on his political and diplomatic role in the Middle East. It also provides insights into his personal life, his relationships, his hobbies, and his passions.
Why is the book important?
The book is important because it reveals the complexity and courage of King Hussein, who faced many challenges and dangers during his long reign. He witnessed and participated in some of the most pivotal events in modern history, such as the Suez Crisis, the Six-Day War, the Black September, the Camp David Accords, the Gulf War, and the Oslo Accords. He also had to deal with internal opposition, regional instability, and international pressure. He managed to maintain his country's sovereignty, security, and stability while pursuing peace and cooperation with his neighbors and allies. He earned respect and admiration from both Arabs and Israelis, as well as from leaders around the world.
The Early Years of King Hussein
His birth and family background
King Hussein was born in Amman, Jordan, on November 14, 1935. He was the eldest son of King Talal and Queen Zein al-Sharaf. He had two younger brothers, Prince Muhammad and Prince Hassan, and a younger sister, Princess Basma. His father was the son of King Abdullah I, who founded the Kingdom of Jordan in 1921. His mother was a member of a prominent Palestinian family from Nablus.
His education and military training
King Hussein received his primary education at the Islamic Scientific College in Amman. He then attended Victoria College in Alexandria, Egypt, where he excelled in sports and academics. He also developed a love for flying and aviation. He returned to Jordan in 1951 and enrolled in the Royal Military Academy in Amman. He graduated as a second lieutenant in 1952.
His ascension to the throne at 17
King Hussein became the king of Jordan on August 11, 1952, at the age of 17. He succeeded his father, who abdicated due to mental illness. He was crowned on May 2, 1953, after reaching the age of majority. He was the youngest monarch in the world at the time. He faced many challenges and threats to his rule, such as coup attempts, assassination plots, and foreign interventions. He survived a near-fatal shooting in 1951, when he accompanied his grandfather King Abdullah to the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. He also survived an airplane crash in 1960, when his plane was sabotaged by Syrian agents.
The Challenges of King Hussein
The Arab-Israeli conflicts
King Hussein was involved in several wars and conflicts with Israel, which posed an existential threat to his country. He fought in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War as a young soldier, witnessing the loss of Palestine and the creation of Israel. He joined the 1956 Suez Crisis as part of the United Arab Republic, a short-lived union between Egypt and Syria. He participated in the 1967 Six-Day War, losing the West Bank and East Jerusalem to Israel. He supported the 1973 Yom Kippur War, hoping to regain the lost territories. He renounced his claim to the West Bank in 1988, recognizing the Palestine Liberation Organization as the sole representative of the Palestinian people.
The internal and regional turmoil
King Hussein also faced many challenges and crises within his own country and region. He had to deal with the Palestinian refugee problem, which increased after the Arab-Israeli wars. He had to cope with the rise of Arab nationalism and socialism, which threatened his legitimacy and authority. He had to confront the radicalization and militarization of some Palestinian factions, which operated from his soil. He had to suppress the Black September uprising in 1970, which resulted in a bloody civil war between his army and the Palestinian guerrillas. He had to navigate the Iran-Iraq War, the Lebanese Civil War, and the Gulf War, which affected his security and economy.
The balancing act between East and West
King Hussein also had to balance his relations with the superpowers and the international community. He sought to maintain good ties with both the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as with Britain and France. He tried to avoid being drawn into their rivalries and conflicts. He also sought to improve his relations with his Arab neighbors and allies, such as Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon. He tried to avoid being isolated or marginalized by their policies and interests.
The Achievements of King Hussein
His role in the peace process
King Hussein was one of the most prominent and active peacemakers in the Middle East. He pursued dialogue and negotiation with Israel, despite the risks and costs. He signed a disengagement agreement with Israel in 1974, ending hostilities along their border. He mediated between Israel and Egypt during the Camp David Accords in 1978, paving the way for their peace treaty in 1979. He initiated a secret dialogue with Israel in 1987, leading to the London Agreement in 1988, which proposed a joint Jordanian-Palestinian delegation for peace talks. He signed a peace treaty with Israel in 1994, ending decades of war and hostility. He also supported the Oslo Accords between Israel and the PLO in 1993.
His economic and social reforms
King Hussein also implemented various economic and social reforms in his country, improving its development and prosperity. He diversified his economy from agriculture to industry and services, attracting foreign investment and trade. He improved his infrastructure, such as roads, bridges, airports, ports, electricity, water, and telecommunications. He expanded his education system, increasing literacy and enrollment rates. He enhanced his health care system, reducing mortality and morbidity rates. He promoted women's rights and empowerment, granting them suffrage and representation.
His legacy and influence
How to Download the Book for Free
The benefits of reading the book
If you want to learn more about King Hussein and his remarkable life, you should definitely read Lion of Jordan: The Life of King Hussein in War and Peace by Avi Shlaim. This book will give you a deeper and richer understanding of the history and politics of the Middle East, as well as the personal and professional challenges and achievements of King Hussein. You will also discover the human side of King Hussein, his passions, his hobbies, his family, and his friends. You will be inspired by his courage, wisdom, and vision for peace and harmony in the region and the world.
The sources of the free download
Fortunately, you can download this book for free from various sources online. You can find it in different formats, such as PDF, EPUB, MOBI, or Kindle. You can also choose to read it online or offline. Here are some of the sources where you can download the book for free:
Archive.org: This is a non-profit library that offers millions of free books, movies, music, and more. You can borrow this book for 14 days and read it online or download it to your device.
Z-Library: This is one of the largest online libraries in the world that contains over 8.5 million books and 84.5 million articles. You can download this book in PDF or EPUB format.
PDF Drive: This is a search engine that helps you find PDF files for free. You can download this book in PDF format.
The steps to download the book
The steps to download the book may vary depending on the source you choose, but they are generally simple and easy to follow. Here are some common steps that you can use:
Go to the website where you want to download the book.
Search for the title of the book or use the link provided above.
Select the format that you prefer or that is compatible with your device.
Click on the download button or link.
Wait for the download to finish or start automatically.
Open the file and enjoy reading the book.
In conclusion, Lion of Jordan: The Life of King Hussein in War and Peace by Avi Shlaim is a must-read book for anyone who wants to learn more about one of the most influential and respected leaders in the Middle East. The book covers King Hussein's life from his birth to his death, with a focus on his political and diplomatic role in the region and the world. It also reveals his personal life, his relationships, his hobbies, and his passions. The book is well-written, well-researched, and well-balanced, providing a comprehensive and captivating biography of King Hussein. You can download this book for free from various sources online, following some simple steps. We hope you enjoy reading this book and learning more about King Hussein and his legacy.
Here are some frequently asked questions about the book and King Hussein:
When did King Hussein die?
King Hussein died on February 7, 1999, at the age of 63. He had been diagnosed with lymphatic cancer in 1998 and underwent several treatments in the United States and Jordan. He returned to Jordan on February 5, 1999, after a failed bone marrow transplant. He died two days later at the King Hussein Medical Center in Amman.
Who succeeded King Hussein?
King Hussein was succeeded by his eldest son, Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein, who became the king of Jordan on February 7, 1999. He had been appointed as crown prince by his father on January 31, 1999, replacing his uncle Prince Hassan, who had been the heir apparent for 34 years. King Abdullah II is the current king of Jordan and the head of the Hashemite dynasty.
Who wrote the book?
The book was written by Avi Shlaim, a professor of international relations at Oxford University. Shlaim is an Israeli historian who specializes in the Arab-Israeli conflict. He interviewed King Hussein several times before his death and had access to his personal papers and archives. He is also the author of several other books, such as The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World and Israel and Palestine: Reappraisals, Revisions, Refutations.
When was the book published?
The book was published in 2007 by Penguin Books. It has 768 pages and 32 pages of photographs. It received positive reviews from critics and readers, who praised its depth, detail, and objectivity. It won the British Academy Book Prize in 2008.
Where can I buy the book?
If you want to buy the book instead of downloading it for free, you can find it on various online platforms, such as Amazon, Barnes & Noble, Book Depository, and AbeBooks. You can also find it in some physical bookstores or libraries near you.