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Midpoint Subdivision Algorithm For Line Clipping Pdf Download [2021]



Abstract:Clipping, as a fundamental process in computer graphics, displays only the part of a scene which is needed to be displayed and rejects all others. In two dimensions, the clipping process can be applied to a variety of geometric primitives such as points, lines, polygons or curves. A line-clipping algorithm processes each line in a scene through a series of tests and intersection calculations to determine whether the entire line or any part of it is to be saved. It also calculates the intersection position of a line with the window edges so its major goal is to minimize these calculations. This article surveys important techniques and algorithms for line-clipping in 2D but it also includes some of the latest research made by the authors. The survey criteria include evaluation of all line-clipping algorithms against a rectangular window, line clipping versus polygon clipping, and our line clipping against a convex polygon, as well as all line-clipping algorithms against a convex polygon algorithm.Keywords: computer graphics; geometry; intersection algorithms; line clipping; polygon clipping




Midpoint Subdivision Algorithm For Line Clipping Pdf Download



The section contains questions and answers on line filling algorithms, line and curve attributes, color and grayscale levels, area fill attributes, bundled and character attributes, character generation and area sampling.


The section contains MCQs on 2d translation, rotation and scaling, matrix representations, 2d transformations and reflection, 2d viewing, window to viewport coordinate transformation, clipping operations, cohen-sutherland and liang barsky line clipping, sutherland-hodgeman polygon clipping, polygon clipping algorithms, curve, text and exterior clipping.


The section contains questions and answers on polygon and quadric surfaces, tables, blobby objects, spline representations and specifications, cubic spline interpolation methods, bezier and b-spline curves and surfaces, solid geometry methods, bsp trees, fractal geometry, particle systems, data sets visualization, editing structures, visible surface detection algorithms and methods.


For using graphics functions, our system output screen is treated as a coordinate system where the coordinate of the top-left corner is (0, 0) and as we move down our y-ordinate increases, and as we move right our x-ordinate increases for any point (x, y). Now, for generating any line segment we need intermediate points and for calculating them we can use a basic algorithm called DDA(Digital differential analyzer) line generating algorithm.


Discharges of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater are recognized as an important source of environmental contamination. However, the harsh sewer environment and particular hydraulic conditions during rain events reduce the reliability of traditional flow measurement probes. An in situ system for sewer water flow monitoring based on video images was evaluated. Algorithms to determine water velocities were developed based on image-processing techniques. The image-based water velocity algorithm identifies surface features and measures their positions with respect to real world coordinates. A web-based user interface and a three-tier system architecture enable remote configuration of the cameras and the image-processing algorithms in order to calculate automatically flow velocity on-line. Results of investigations conducted in a CSO are presented. The system was found to measure reliably water velocities, thereby providing the means to understand particular hydraulic behaviors.


An automatic abalone grading algorithm that estimates abalone weights on the basis of computer vision using 2D images is developed and tested. The algorithm overcomes the problems experienced by conventional abalone grading methods that utilize manual sorting and mechanical automatic grading. To design an optimal algorithm, a regression formula and R(2) value were investigated by performing a regression analysis for each of total length, body width, thickness, view area, and actual volume against abalone weights. The R(2) value between the actual volume and abalone weight was 0.999, showing a relatively high correlation. As a result, to easily estimate the actual volumes of abalones based on computer vision, the volumes were calculated under the assumption that abalone shapes are half-oblate ellipsoids, and a regression formula was derived to estimate the volumes of abalones through linear regression analysis between the calculated and actual volumes. The final automatic abalone grading algorithm is designed using the abalone volume estimation regression formula derived from test results, and the actual volumes and abalone weights regression formula. In the range of abalones weighting from 16.51 to 128.01 g, the results of evaluation of the performance of algorithm via cross-validation indicate root mean square and worst-case prediction errors of are 2.8 and 8 g, respectively. 2015 Institute of Food Technologists


Accurate and reliable tumour delineation on positron emission tomography (PET) is crucial for radiotherapy treatment planning. PET automatic segmentation (PET-AS) eliminates intra- and interobserver variability, but there is currently no consensus on the optimal method to use, as different algorithms appear to perform better for different types of tumours. This work aimed to develop a predictive segmentation model, trained to automatically select and apply the best PET-AS method, according to the tumour characteristics. ATLAAS, the automatic decision tree-based learning algorithm for advanced segmentation is based on supervised machine learning using decision trees. The model includes nine PET-AS methods and was trained on a 100 PET scans with known true contour. A decision tree was built for each PET-AS algorithm to predict its accuracy, quantified using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), according to the tumour volume, tumour peak to background SUV ratio and a regional texture metric. The performance of ATLAAS was evaluated for 85 PET scans obtained from fillable and printed subresolution sandwich phantoms. ATLAAS showed excellent accuracy across a wide range of phantom data and predicted the best or near-best segmentation algorithm in 93% of cases. ATLAAS outperformed all single PET-AS methods on fillable phantom data with a DSC of 0.881, while the DSC for H&N phantom data was 0.819. DSCs higher than 0.650 were achieved in all cases. ATLAAS is an advanced automatic image segmentation algorithm based on decision tree predictive modelling, which can be trained on images with known true contour, to predict the best PET-AS method when the true contour is unknown. ATLAAS provides robust and accurate image segmentation with potential applications to radiation oncology.


Time-related capture areas are usually delineated using the backward particle tracking method, releasing circles of equally spaced particles around each well. In this way, an accurate delineation often requires both a very high number of particles and a manual capture zone encirclement. The aim of this work was to propose an Automatic Protection Area (APA) delineation algorithm, which can be coupled with any model of flow and particle tracking. The computational time is here reduced, thanks to the use of a limited number of nonequally spaced particles. The particle starting positions are determined coupling forward particle tracking from the stagnation point, and backward particle tracking from the pumping well. The pathlines are postprocessed for a completely automatic delineation of closed perimeters of time-related capture zones. The APA algorithm was tested for a two-dimensional geometry, in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous aquifers, steady state flow conditions, single and multiple wells. Results show that the APA algorithm is robust and able to automatically and accurately reconstruct protection areas with a very small number of particles, also in complex scenarios.


Developing specialized software tools is essential to support studies of solar activity evolution. With new space missions such as Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), solar images are being produced in unprecedented volumes. To capitalize on that huge data availability, the scientific community needs a new generation of software tools for automatic and efficient data processing. In this paper a prototype of a modular framework for solar feature detection, characterization, and tracking is presented. To develop an efficient system capable of automatic solar feature tracking and measuring, a hybrid approach combining specialized image processing, evolutionary optimization, and soft computing algorithms is being followed. The specialized hybrid algorithm for tracking solar features allows automatic feature tracking while gathering characterization details about the tracked features. The hybrid algorithm takes advantages of the snake model, a specialized image processing algorithm widely used in applications such as boundary delineation, image segmentation, and object tracking. Further, it exploits the flexibility and efficiency of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), a stochastic population based optimization algorithm. PSO has been used successfully in a wide range of applications including combinatorial optimization, control, clustering, robotics, scheduling, and image processing and video analysis applications. The proposed tool, denoted PSO-Snake model, was already successfully tested in other works for tracking sunspots and coronal bright points. In this work, we discuss the application of the PSO-Snake algorithm for calculating the sidereal rotational angular velocity of the solar corona. To validate the results we compare them with published manual results performed by an expert.


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